Intro to Perfuming is the first video in the Artisanal Aromatics Series of education videos and discussions on topics pertaining to aromatherapy, herbalism, soapmaking, incense creation, and perfumery. On December 2nd, we talked about types of perfumes, fragrance classifications and notes, supplies, and the differences between fragrance oils, aroma chemicals, and essential oils.
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Restorative Aromatics will create your custom Bespoke fragrance blend tailored to your needs. It can be an original creation or a replication based on samples of other fragrances. Pricing varies depending upon individual in-person consultation fees, materials used, and other costs of supplies needed to create your Bespoke blend.
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Restorative Aromatics: Perfuming 101: Creating fragrance blends for perfumes and skincare products.
Time: Dec 2, 2018 7:00 PM Eastern Time (US and Canada)
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I am enrolled in a perfuming course through the Online Perfume School and am loving it as it has expanded how I think about aromas beyond what they smell like. Aroma has the power to evoke emotions and memories, but when you sit with an aroma or a blend, you can start to draw upon other sensory experiences such as the color of the aroma, its temperature, associated imagery, or how it sounds whether it be a particular sound or even music. Our sense of smell is one of our most powerful sensory experiences.
Perfumes are made using different types of ingredients. They can be made using natural essential oils only or they can be made adding fragrance oils and aroma chemicals in addition to essential oils. I recently wrote a blog titled Essential Oils vs Fragrance Oils where I explored the differences between natural and synthetic components of perfumes and colognes.
There are three primary ways to create perfumes and colognes.
Some recipes on the internet will recommend using vodka for alcohol-based perfumes, but it is important to use a denatured (non-drinkable) perfumer's alcohol (SDA 40B), especially if you are looking to sell your creations. Perfumer's alcohol is a combination of Ethanol, T-butyl alcohol, and Bitrex (Denatonium Benzoate.) In the United States, you will have to get a special permit in order to not only sell your perfumes, but to also purchase larger quantities of perfumers alcohol. In most cases, the limit is 5 gallons per year without a permit.
There are several different formulations that can be used to create different types of perfume based on the percentage of fragrance and perfumer's alcohol as a base. For one fluid ounces (30 ml) here is a general guide of fragrance to perfumer's alcohol ratio. It will be most helpful to have a set of graduated cylinders to measure by ml. I recommend blending by weight, but you can also make notes on drops used.
When you make a spray perfume mixed with perfumer's alcohol, it is recommended to let it sit for up to a month for the fragrance to really meld into its final form. You can always use it right away, but the fragrance may change over time.
I use a blend of Jojoba oil and beeswax to make solid perfumes. If you are looking for a vegan alternative to beeswax, you can substitute Candelilla Wax, but it has a much harder consistency than beeswax, so you will need to adjust the formulation accordingly.
I use 10 ml roller bottles for perfume oils, in which case I use about 20-25 drops of the fragrance blend, plus 10 ml of a carrier oil like jojoba or sweet almond oil.
Perfume blending techniques
It is essential to understand the fragrance note of each component in the blend whether it be an essential oils, fragrance oil, or aroma chemical. Typically, they are arranged in a pyramid of Top notes, Middle or Heart Notes, and Base Notes. Top notes like citruses will evaporate more quickly, but will often be the first aroma that you smell when the perfume is applied. Middle notes are the heart of the fragrance and last quite a bit longer than top notes, and base notes last the longest as deep and heavy aromas. Aromatic blends are comprised of all three types to balance out the fragrance. You shouldn't use all top notes or all base notes on their own. Even if you are creating a light refreshing citrus blend you will want to give it some heart with mid notes and a solid foundation of base notes.
Your fragrance blends can also be used outside of perfume or cologne applications. Those fragrance blends can be used in soaps, skincare products, and bath & shower products as well. It is important, especially when using essential oils to know any safety precautions associated with the oil. I love cinnamon bark, but it is a highly sensitizing essential oil, so I will often use a synthetic fragrance oil in its place for the aroma only.
Happy perfume making and fragrance blending! Stay tuned for my upcoming weekly Zoom call series beginning on November 30, 2018 and the first topic will be more information on perfuming!
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I have been a little quiet lately, but that is because I am up to a lot of exciting new endeavors. First and foremost, I bought a house and am settling and moving on November 5th. I am super excited to have a larger facility to make my products, have small workshops, and facilitate client consultations.
Here are some other exciting things to note for November and December 2018:
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Do you know what the average shelf life of a water-based product with essential oils is before it starts "going bad?" Even if you refrigerate it? THREE DAYS! That is, if you do not use a preservative! I started using Benzylalcohol-DHA which Making Cosmetics describes as "a broad-spectrum preservative blend consisting of benzylalcohol (aromatic alcohol) (87%), dehydroacetic acid (8%) & water (5%) and is an effective alternative to parabens. It is soluble in water, alcohols & glycols." This is the natural preservative that I chose to use in all of my water-based products. That includes things like hydrosols, aloe vera, and other water-based extracts.
I knew you needed to use preservatives in hydrous products, but I didn't know how fast things start to degrade without it and how prone they become to microbial growth. You can also add antioxidants like Vitamin E Oil and Rosemary Antioxidant (which is a plant extract and not an essential oil) to properly ensure your products shelf life, but they do not act as preservatives on their own. I used to make my own foaming hand soap with a simple recipe using distilled water, castile soap, and essential oils -- without any preservatives. Guess what, that all natural soap I made would be floating with microbial growth in a matter of days!
There are preservative calculators that can assist you in figuring out the correct weight to add to your finished products. I like the one from HumbleBee & Me, but you need to keep in mind that it is basing the weight in grams, which is the standard unit of measurement for making topical cosmetic applications. There are also conversion tools available to figure out the total weight in grams if you are using ounces. One ounce roughly equals 28.3495 grams. Most kitchen or lab scales can be adjusted to switch from ounces to grams as well.
There are many FDA regulations in place when it comes to legally selling hydrous products -- those being products that contain any type of water-based ingredient. I started using Sagescript Institute, LLC in Colorado to test my products. Sagescript states, "The FDA does not require any microbiology testing but it is a responsible thing to do to protect your formula and your customer. The FDA does say that a cosmetic should not be adulterated which is interpreted as meaning it should not contain harmful bacteria or fungus." All this means is that if you are making and selling products, you are liable for them. Pro tip: It is also a good idea to get yourself some business and personal liability insurance. The Indie Business Network and The Handcrafter's Soap and Cosmetics Guild offer discounts as a membership benefit.
Each product will cost between $28 and $32 for microbial testing. You package and label your samples and mail them to the lab, they test them, and then send you the report. The whole process can take about 2-3 weeks. It is recommended that even if you are using the same base ingredients, but make a slight variation to the coloring, essential oils, or fragrance oils that you should also have those products tested too -- even though they will most likely yield the same results as the base products that were originally tested.
Preservatives exist for a reason and the natural ones will conform to your personal or philosophical standards that you may adhere to in your product creation process. There are numerous natural preservatives available on the market in the US, UK, and Europe. When in doubt, if it has any water or water-based products in it, use a preservative!
Philadelphia, PA – Jennifer Vatza is a certified aromatherapist and the founder of Restorative Aromatics, where she offers a holistic approach to self-care enhanced by aromatherapy.
Aromatherapy is the art of utilizing naturally extracted aromatic essences from plants to balance to promote the health of body, mind and spirit. Whether you’re experiencing stress and anxiety, sleep issues, acute and chronic pain, aromatherapy can help to ground and center you and allow yourself to heal.
Jennifer also educates clients on supporting and enhancing their health and wellness through aromatherapy through in-person workshops and online social media engagement. She is also working on a webinar series and several eBooks on aromatherapy topics.
Jennifer offers a stress management coaching program known as Aromatic Grounding: Stress Mapping and Redesign, which uses essential oils to help train her clients to rewrite their stress responses and redesign how they respond to stress in the future. Every client has receives a “stress kit” containing aromatic products designed to reduce their stress levels.
There are three different modes of applications: direct inhalation, dermal application, like creams or salves, and internal application.
“I’m really proud of being able to help people through aromatherapy because it’s a daunting field, with so much misinformation,” says Jennifer. “I’m grateful that people are looking at things like aromatherapy.”
For more information on Restorative Aromatics, visit www.restorativearomatics.com
There is a lot of internet chatter about essential oils versus fragrance oils as of late. I'm a certified aromatherapist and I primarily work with essential oils, but on occasion I do use fragrance oils. I use them sparingly and always in combination with essential oils because fragrance oils on their own have no therapeutic benefits. Primarily, I use them in soaps, bubble bath, and perfumes. So, what's the difference between essential oils and fragrance oils?
Essential oils are organic compounds extracted from plants that have therapeutic properties. They can be found in the plant’s flowers, stems, leaves, roots, grass, bark, resin, or fruit. The chemistry is extremely complex and may consist of hundreds of different and unique chemical compounds that influence the therapeutic benefits of each oil or blend.
Fragrance oils are a combination of natural and synthetic produced in a lab to mimic different aromas as some plants do not produce essential oil extracts even though they may be fragrant by nature. It is important if you do use fragrance oils to consider the purpose and be sure that the fragrance oils that you are using are phthalate free. Phthalates are industrial chemicals that are used as solvents in cosmetics and other products. They can damage the liver, kidneys, lungs, and reproductive system in animals as well as humans. Read more about the impact of Phthalates on human health with links to other research on the CDC's website.
Both essential oils and fragrance oils are generally safe for the skin -- though it is always recommended to research possible skin sensitivities such as photosensitivity (risk of adverse reaction of some essential oils combined with sun exposure or UV rays from a tanning bed) with essential oils and always adhere to proper dilution ratios. There are also specific calculators available to measure how much fragrance oil to use by volume.
The ingredients of fragrance oils (aromatic chemicals, essential oils, and essential oil chemical components) are all tested and have usage rates outlined by IFRA (International Fragrance Association). Aromatic chemicals are comprised of synthetic and natural ingredients that are produced through distillation, synthesis, and extraction. They may even have the same chemical compounds found in nature. An essential oil compound may be an isolated aromatic chemical such as limonene.
Each fragrance oil ingredient is tested by the RIFM (Research Institute for Fragrance Materials). They test for irritation, solvency, absorption, flash point, specific gravity, flammability as well for carcinogens and other factors that may deem them unsafe for use. Fragrance oil suppliers should follow IFRA’s guidelines and use only RIFM approved ingredients in their fragrance oils. That said, not all manufacturers and suppliers may adhere to these stringent guidelines in the same manner that some suppliers boast to sell 100% pure essential oils, but sell diluted, adulterated, or synthetic substances and pass them off as 100% pure essential oils.
Properly tested fragrance oils can be perfectly safe for the skin while others may be specifically for use in things like potpourri or candles. Now, the question is, do I use or avoid fragrance oils? That is up to the individual. As I mentioned earlier, I use them sparingly in certain formulations. I particularly like to use them in place of skin sensitizing essential oils such as cinnamon bark and clove. I love their aroma, but they are too caustic for the skin. If you are looking for 100% all natural products then you probably want to avoid using fragrance oils altogether.
How do you know if the company you are purchasing your essential oils from practices ethical and sustainable harvesting of plant material? - especially when it comes from critically endangered or protected plant species such as Rosewood, Spikenard, Sandalwood, Palo Santo, Agarwood, and even one of the most commonly used essential oils, Frankincense. These plant species are critically endangered due to having been drastically over-harvested or harvested illegally for many years.
Let's talk about each of these essential oils and how they should be harvested. Always look for this information provided on the essential oil company that you are purchasing from. If this information is not present, I would either do research on the brand to ensure their practices are ethical or avoid them altogether if you cannot verify such information. This is a known issue in the aromatherapy world so this information should be easy to come by.
Rosewood trees are native to Brazil and are critically endangered due to developmental clear cutting and other unethical harvesting methods. The wood should be harvested sustainably from trees that are intentionally planted in forests. The tree tops should be trimmed similarly to the way in which you would prune an overgrown bush or tree in your garden. This will ensure that the trees are kept alive and healthy.
Palo Santo is protected by the government of Ecuador and a permit is required to harvest the oil from dead trees or fallen branches from dead trees, that have been lying on the ground for at least two years. It is important that when you purchase this precious oil that the company whom you are purchasing from is educated in sustainable and ethical practices and deals with brokers and distributors who harvest the plant material legally and ethically.
Spikenard is hard to cultivate since it grows naturally in rocky soil at very high elevations in Nepal. It has been critically endangered since the mid-1990s. Permits are needed to buy and trade spikenard root for essential oils and is heavily regulated by the Nepalese government.
Agarwood should be sustainably produced from the heartwood of two different species of evergreen trees. The essential oils is usually produced from a wild, private tropical forest plantation in Thailand. They ensure that their agarwood is sustainably and ethically produced and follows local government regulations.
Sandalwood is endangered because of illegal smuggling and over-harvesting of wild-growing trees in India. The depopulation has occurred over many decades causing the industry to collapse in India. It is primarily cultivated in Australia these days.
Frankincense (Boswellia carterii -- as opposed to other types of Frankincense) has been over-harvested in Somalia and other parts of North Africa. Due to the popularity of this essential oil, it will inevitably be moving up the list of endangered species.
When critically endangered plants or ones that are teetering on the edge of being over-harvested without regard for ethics and sustainability, the supplies will either run low or cease to exist. Additionally, governmental regulations may be mandated to protect these plant species from extinctions. This will also drive market prices through the roof. Today, a 5ml bottle of Sandalwood can run upwards of $100 and Agarwood runs closer to $200 for a 5ml bottle. The others remain reasonably priced considering their scarcity.
This is where using your essential oils in a sustainable manner and not overusing them comes in to play. Don't just assume to throw 10-15 drops of 3-5 different essential oils in a roller and call it day. Understand proper dilution ratios, you will only need 1-2 drops of Rose oil as opposed to 20, which would be an expensive waste. If you are using these particular essential oils on a regular basis please do so with intention knowing that every drop is precious and not to be wasted.
Knowing and trusting the company or companies you purchases your essential oil products from is crucial in this industry and I have and continue to use numerous different brands of essential oils. Early on in my essential oil journey, I began using Young Living essential oils because they were the best, most pure, therapeutic grade essential oils and the company owned their own farms.
Earlier this year in January, when I was working on my first aromatherapy certification, I contacted Young Living specifically to ask what chemotypes their Rosemary, Basil, and Thyme since they were not on the label or website and they do not provide GC/MS reports on their website or by request.
For your reference: “A chemotype occurs when a plant of a specific genus and species produces a particular chemical in a higher than normal amount because of geographic location, weather, altitude, insect and environmental interactions, and the like. A chemotype is not a different species or genus, nor is it a type of chemical; it is merely a chemical anomaly within the plant that occurs naturally.” -[ The New York Institute of Aromatic Studies, Aromatic Scholars program.] To learn more about chemotypes of certain essential oils, please read my previous blog post: What are Essential Oil Chemotypes?
Young Living’s Product Support responded in February saying that “We do not have a specific chemotype for our essential oils available to provide as we do not standardize our essential oils by chemotype. However, we are able to provide the key constituents on a specific oil you have concerns regarding. “
This did not sit well with me because it seemed as if they didn’t really have a good understanding of what chemotypes were at all. How can you standardize something that occurs in nature based on things like weather and whatnot. I even inquired with my colleagues and aromatherapy instructors all of which agreed that this claim makes no sense -- I even asked Robert Tisserand during one of the weekly Q&A sessions during the Essential Oils Safety Masterclass and he said that it "made no sense."
Young Living does not release their GC/MS reports to the public, so there is no way to confirm this information, but it would appear (in the past) that even if they do not standardize oils by chemotype that their Basil is high in Methylchavicol, Rosemary with 1,8 cineole, and Thyme with thymol.
Fast forward a couple of months, I followed up with a few questions:
I was told that " We do not have a specific chemotype for our essential oils available to provide as we do not standardize our essential oils by chemotype. However, we are able to provide the key constituents on a specific oil you have concerns regarding." I was given the corresponding chemical constituents for the oils requested (Rosemary, Basil, and Thyme). But the first statement is concerning to me as chemotypes are very important to know for these essential oils."
"You should be able to tell customers what chemotypes of oils that you are selling. This is not a standardization, chemotypes occur in nature due to a variety of factors including: chemical composition including environmental conditions such as light, soil, temperature, moisture, climatic influence and altitude as well as geographic area.. Many essential oils have chemotypes and it is always important to know which one you are working with as therapeutics and safety may differ. Do your chemotypes stay the same? Do they change depending upon the harvest? This information is hard to ascertain since you do not publish your GC/MS reports."
To which Young Living Product Support responded:
"Young Living® no longer standardizes its essential oils by chemotype (CT). Chemotype is another name for chemical variety (a specific variety of a plant species based on chemical profile). Young Living has adopted the use of "Seed to Seal®" to standardize its essential oils by. Seed to Seal includes standardization by chemical profile as well as growing conditions, distillation, and manufacturing process."
I responded again with:
"This seriously makes no sense, while yes, a chemotype is a chemical specificity or variety, it is one that is based on numerous factors. For your reference: A chemotype occurs when a plant of a specific genus and species produces a particular chemical in a higher than normal amount because of geographic location, weather, altitude, insect and environmental interactions, and the like. A chemotype is not a different species or genus, nor is it a type of chemical; it is merely a chemical anomaly within the plant that occurs naturally."
"So unless you can control the weather and the aforementioned factors, I am suspect about your claims that you can "standardize" your oils by "Seed to Seal" without altering the chemical makeup of the oil artificially. I understand that some aspects can be controlled, but you cannot account for one crop having had more rain than another and have it not have a relative chemotype."
"I would like further clarification upon this subject because there are vast different therapeutic properties for different oils with chemotypes. For instance, Rosemary can be used for hair growth - this is true of the verbenone chemotype, but not 1,8 cineole or camphor chemotypes. This is particularly frustrating since Young Living does not share its GC/MS reports with the public."
I am rather frustrated and disappointed that they could not answer a simple question and seem to not even be all that educated in the science of essential oils, which is also a bit off-putting since they are one of the biggest essential oils companies in the world and like to claim that their oils are the most pure, the most therapeutic grade, and seed to seal.
Finally in August they replied….
"We recognize that pure essential oils will have natural variances in chemical makeup from batch to batch caused by many different factors including time of harvest, amount of sunlight, amount of water, geographical location of harvest, etc. However, our Seed to Seal® quality commitment ensures that every batch of oil contains the optimal levels of natural bio-active compounds. We verify the chemical constituents of each batch through testing before we begin selling the oil. From this information, we can assure you that the active constituents in each batch and bottle of essential oil meet our specifications and thus have the same therapeutic value."
"The key constituents for Basil, Rosemary, and Thyme given to you past provided the ranges for the levels of those constituents which were considered within our Seed to Seal specifications at that time. Due to a recent change in company policy, we are no longer able to provide ranges for the chemical constituents in our essential oils. This information is now regarded as proprietary as it discloses the constituents we deem most therapeutic in value, and therefore the information is considered trade secrets. Patents and trademarks do not adequately protect this information, as you cannot patent or trademark an oil."
So after close to 9 months, I still have no answers, and they seem to be stuck on seed to seal trumping chemotype considerations which occur naturally due to a variety of environmental effects. This is why companies need to provide GC/MS reports on their website or at the very least by request. This is not proprietary information. The "because we are awesome and we say so" argument does not hold up here at all. I am highly disappointed by their responses and lack of actual information beyond the company marketing lines.
One of my favorite aromatherapy bloggers: The English Aromatherapist wrote a recent post called OUCH! HOW NOT TO USE ESSENTIAL OILS and I, of course, was intrigued and inspired to write about the subject matter touching upon two controversial DIY "essential oil hacks" -- essential oil tampons and eye drops. Yes, you read that correctly. People put essential oils on their tampons and in their eyes!
Not all advice on the Internet is good advice and some of it can be downright dangerous and detrimental to your health -- even if it comes from your favorite essential oil company or their reps. Suffice it to say, professional aromatherapists and other industry professionals DO NOT advocate or recommend using essential oils on tampons or as eye drops for many safety reasons. We are not being killjoys, your safety is our concern. We love essential oils too and we do not want to see anyone get hurt by improper usage.
I am trained in French Aromatherapy, which promotes the safe use of essential oils and herbs internally, but there are many things to consider and essential oils should never be taken internally without using an excipient or some type of carrier oil or butter. People are being advised to soak tampons in undiluted essential oils, usually Tea Tree, to treat various ailments. This can be extremely dangerous and lead to chemical burns and scarring. Many essential oils are mucous membrane irritants and therefore should be avoided in sensitive areas like the genitals and eyes.
Vaginal pessaries and rectal suppositories can be useful for treating ailments affecting the vagina, rectum, and colon due to their near or direct contact with these parts. Pessaries can have antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antiviral, labor-inducing and spermicidal agents, prostaglandins and steroidal properties. To use properly, individually the pessary or suppository should weigh about 3 grams with the essential oil content for each being no more than 4-6 drops for adults. You will ALWAYS need to use Cocoa butter, Coconut oil, or Sesame oil with your Essential Oils and powdered herbs for this route of internal application. Never, ever is it recommended to use undiluted essential oils vaginally or rectally. [French Aromatherapy Certification Program, The New York Institute of Aromatic Studies]
When it comes to using essential oils in or around the eyes, it is best to avoid practice -- and that includes making eyelash growth serums. I tested the typical eyelash growth serum out early in my essential oil experimentation days and avoid the practice all together. Typically, they call for blending castor oil with varying amounts of Rosemary, Cedarwood, and Lavender -- up to 15 drops of each oil plus some castor oil in a mascara tube. I used a couple drops each plus castor oil and no matter how careful you apply it, you will get it in your eyes and it will burn. It just is not worth the risk. I use Latisse and the method of application for this product is not to use a mascara wand and apply to the entire length of your eyelashes, but you get a delicate straight brush and apply one drop across the base of your eyelashes because that is where your eyelash growth comes from. I cannot imagine using essential oil eyedrops since I wear contact lenses and do not want to damage them, I have never intentionally gotten essential oils in my eyes. Renowned essential oil safety expert Robert Tisserand states that there is no evidence that essential oils will improve eye health and using essential oils in the eyes should be avoided.
As a professional aromatherapist, I love essential oils, a lot actually. My collection includes over 140 different oils and is continually growing as is my knowledgebase and research. I keep a database of every oil, its safety precautions and therapeutic applications for reference. Research should always come from reputable resources, not Pinterest boards or the advice of untrained essential oil enthusiasts. They may mean well, but your health is not worth the risk.
Owner, Restorative Aromatics and NAHA Certified Aromatherapist Level One. This blog focuses on aromatherapy education and other essential oil related topics.