Ever since I completed my French Aromatherapy Certification coursework last year, I have been curious about the trend of folks cooking with essential oils as a means of ingestion often touted under the tutelage of the "french method." Nowhere in the certification program was cooking with essential oils even once mentioned, nor have I seen it in any authentic French Aromatherapy articles, blog posts, or books. Cooking with essential oils seems to have come out of the MLM faction of the essential oils industry. Personally, I don't see the point of the practice as it is both expensive and wasteful, but lets delve a little deeper into the mythos surrounding the practice.
Setting aside the safety concerns about improper ingestion of essential oils, my gut feeling on cooking with essential oils is that it is nothing more than an expensive waste. I look at it the same way as cooking with alcohol -- my bourbon chicken is going to taste great, but I'm not going to get drunk on it because the heat required to cook or bake the dish burns off the alcohol content. The same would apply to essential oils, if you are using them for their therapeutic benefit, the heat is most likely taking that away and you will be left with expensive flavoring. So why not use fresh or dried herbs instead or even herbal infusions?
Essential oils do not contain any vitamins or minerals like herbs do. I have and am continuing to study herbalism extensively and one of the things I love about true French Aromatherapy is that it is a combination of herbalism and aromatherapy. They exist in harmony and balance and practitioners chose the best mode of application - would making an herbal poultice for a burn be a better application than putting an essential oil salve on it? Both are trusted methods of treatment and viable options.
Regarding the safety of ingesting essential oils in food, let us revisit the fact that essential oils are fat soluble meaning they are attracted the fats and not water. Once again, OIL AND WATER DO NOT MIX and that is just elementary science. With any mode of internal application of essential oils, the same safety principles apply, some essential oils are mucous membrane irritants meaning they could cause irritation in your mouth or digestive tract. Other essential oils can interact with certain medications when ingested. These are things to consider with the practice.
The potency of essential oils cannot be understated - you will often see the example comparing one drop of peppermint essential oil being the equivalent of twenty-six cups of peppermint tea. Would you drink that much peppermint tea a day? every day? GRAS (Generally regarded as safe) status does not necessarily indicate that there are zero safety concerns when it comes to ingestion. Things that were deemed GRAS by the FDA were done in parts per million not individual drops in a single beverage or dish. This article clearly outlines the particulars of essential oils and GRAS status.
As an experiment, I wanted to make Rose infused brownies, and I was not going to use a single drop of my precious and expensive Rose essential oil in it. However, I used a rose petal infused olive oil in addition to some powdered rose petals in the brownie mix and it was delicious. In my herbalism studies, there are so many amazing food and beverage preparations with natural materials that do not contain a single drop of essential oils. I prefer herbal infusions for flavoring. I've made infused honey, olive oil, and balsamic vinegar and am eager to experiment further.
If you want to cook with essential oils, no one is stopping you, but consider that there are much better alternatives to doing so that are safer, less expensive, and more sustainable in the long run.
I've been thinking about my why when it comes to aromatherapy especially pertaining to essential oil safety. I am a knowledge seeker and want to know as much as I possibly can about my field of study. Its not enough to look at the science of essential oil chemistry and throw caution to the wind as if they are unfounded or will never happen to me. I cannot do that for personal reasons based on a horrible medical experience I had several years ago. I will share that story now.
In 2011, I was suffering from major depression and constant anxiety so I began seeing a new psychiatrist who within a 15 minute session diagnosed me as Bipolar II. I had already tried Lithium and Depakote, neither of which worked for me, so he prescribed Lamictal. He warned that there is a potentially fatal rash that can occur and to check my skin daily for any signs. Thankfully, I did not get the rash. Lamictal is a psychiatric medication that is also used to treat epilepsy and you have to slowly increase the dosage over time to get to the therapeutic level. Almost immediately, I started having significant neurological issues, any stimuli like lights, noise, motion, sound, and smell would make me feel like I was about to have a seizure. I was assured this was normal and to continue with the medication increases every two weeks. Over that time more and more neurological symptoms arose; I was forgetting things, using similar, but incorrect words, repeating myself without knowing it in a short period of time, and talking in what can only be described as "word salad." I thought I was losing my mind. I was still having stimuli triggered feelings like I was going to have a seizure. My gait was affected too, for some reason, if I was walking in a straight line, I would always end up veering to the right. I felt unhinged, like I was coming apart at the seams.
One evening I was in crisis mode, wandering around the city before my therapist appointment at the same office and asked if I could see the psychiatrist that evening. I was given an emergency appointment and then scolded that this was not a walk-in clinic and that I had to make an appointment in advance. So in addition to feeling like I was about to have a mental breakdown, I was being guilt tripped for being an inconvenience. I talked with the doctor and I don't recall if anything changed at that time. The neurological symptoms did not go away. So, I decided to research the medication more and there it was, ALL of the neurological side effects, that my doctor 1) never warned me about and 2) failed to recognize as a serious problem directly resulting from the medication. Soon thereafter, I made another appointment and demanded to be switched to another medication, which he did. But, I had to slowly decrease the Lamictal and remain on it for another few weeks. Even once, I had stopped taking it. It took another 10 months for it fully to be out of my system. Most of the neurological effects subsided during that time though I had lingering anxiety and panic attacks if I had to be in a car, so I could no longer drive and would be a nervous wreck in the passenger seat because I still could not process all of the visual information of speed, movement, lights, other cars, etc. Luckily, after such a horrible experience, I started seeing a new psychiatrist, whom I adore and still see to this day.
Even though I recovered, I truly believe that if I stayed on that medication it would have killed me and that is not an exaggeration. Years later, I would also discover that his initial diagnosis of Bipolar II was incorrect, so I was in effect being treated for an illness that I did not have in the first place.
This is my why. This is why I am 100% committed to knowing the power of the essential oils and proper application methodologies. I prefer to know all of the contraindications no matter how slim of a chance they are to occur. Looking at my situation, if I was using an essential oil that affected the enzyme(s) used to metabolize that medication, either dulling or increasing the effects, it would have made the situation even worse. My purpose in aromatherapy is to ensure the safety of everyone that uses essential oils in their daily lives. I choose to be an informed patient and understand that not everyone has the impetus to do the same thing, so I do my best to disseminate the correct information based upon my research and studies. If I knew what to look for regarding the side effects from Lamictal, I would have saved myself months and months of trauma.
If you read my blog or follow me on social media, you know that I am keenly aware of essential oil safety issues and misinformation and love to research and write about the topic. When safety concerns come up pertaining to essential oils and aromatherapy practices, it goes beyond "listen to your body." Self-awareness is a crucial component, but not the be all end all good advice. No one will be able to tell if they are damaging their liver and kidneys by ingesting improperly diluted essential oils on a regular basis. It would take routine blood tests to ascertain that type of issue.
It takes a lot to keenly "listen to your body" because we encounter so many different things on a daily basis from what we eat, drink, breathe, allergens, pollutants, fragrances, etc. It is an obvious sign that if I put an essential oil product on my skin and I get a rash that most likely that was the cause... or was it a combination of different factors? Will it happen all the time? This can happen with anything. I realized rather shockingly that while I have never had a problem consuming anything using baking soda as an ingredient that I cannot use natural deodorants that contain baking soda as it turns my armpits into itchy, red, fiery, painful pits of agony. There is a lot of gray area when some signs might not be obvious.
Recently, I discovered that German Chamomile should be avoided all routes with the blood pressure medication that I take -- I did not notice any issues, but I do not use German Chamomile regularly, but it is something to be cognizant about. I switched out the two things that I occasionally use with German Chamomile in it with another oil with similar therapeutic properties. Knowing this, I will have to be careful when preparing blends for clients and customers so that I don't accidentally cause myself to have issues by incidental exposure.
According to Tisserand & Young: German Chamomile is to be avoid all routes (topical, internal, and inhalation) due to drug interactions with German Chamomile for drugs that are metabolized by the enzymes CYP2D6, CYP1A2, CYP2C9, and CYP3A4.
To explain what this means, a chemical component or multiple components in German Chamomile and other essential oils inhibit the way that drugs are metabolized by the aforementioned enzymes. Enzymes function works is different for everyone. Some people are ultra rapid metabolizers and others are slow metabolizers. The risk is that if a drug is metabolized too quickly, it may decrease the efficacy conversely if the drug is metabolized too slowly, toxicity could result. This is probably why there is a general precaution for drugs metabolized by this enzyme since it would be hard to know if you are an ultra rapid metabolizer or a slow metabolizer simply by listening to your body if not obvious symptoms emerge. Safety warnings are just that, they are there to provide us with the necessary information to make an informed decision about our health.
This is another case where "listen to your body" doesn't cover all bases. Some will argue that there are no documented cases of anyone having major issues. While that may be the case, everyone has a different physiology, so while 10 people on the same blood pressure medication may not have had an issue, you do have to take into account the 1 person who did have an issue. It all comes down to evaluating risks and knowing what those possible risks were. It is also important to note that not everyone reports injuries due to essential oils as it may not be obviously the culprit.
As an aromatherapist, I could not in good ethical practice, encourage someone to use a product that is contraindicated with their medications or a health issue. What if they were that one person who had a negative reaction? Their health and well being is not worth the risk. There are other essential oils that have the same therapeutic benefits that could be used in place of the problematic one. Besides which, this would be a huge liability issue. The mantra of anyone practicing in traditional Western medical fields or complementary alternative medical fields is "first, do no harm."
I urge you to read "The Unspoken Truth About Essential Oils" by Stacey Haluka and Kayla Fioravanti. It drastically changed my perspective on how safety issues are handled in the aromatherapy world especially when you have numerous people without any formal training selling essential oils and espousing dangerous myths and potentially dangerous misinformation. Stacey's story is a must read for anyone who uses essential oils personally or professionally -- even aromatherapists and other industry professionals need to read her story so they know what is at risk and how to avoid the pain and suffering Stacey had to endure.
Using essential oils safely is a topic that is very important to me as an aromatherapist and in the product creation process for my business. I recently finished up researching essential oil safety for my pregnancy care product line and am embarking on product development for a new product line for babies and children. There is a lot of misinformation and unsafe practices that come across in Google searches, Pinterest boards, blog posts, and Facebook groups.
Human physiology is different for everyone and the constitution for babies and children is extremely delicate. The safety standards espoused by aromatherapy educators and industry experts is based on science and decades of experience. These standards apply to all essential oils even ones that are 100% pure or "therapeutic-grade."
General Safety & Dosage Guidelines
Oils to avoid and why
There are plenty of essential oils that are perfectly safe to use on babies and children as long as you follow the correct dosage guidelines. However, there are many essential oils that you will want to avoid all together depending on their age. You may have used some of these oils on your children and have had no issues, but you should be aware of the safety precautions and wary of bad advice that is easily accessible online. Just because you have not had an issue, does not mean that it can never happen. Children do not metabolize essential oils in the same manner that adults do.
Avoid use on children under 2 years old
Certain essential oils should be avoided topically due to a moderate risk of mucous membrane irritation, skin sensitization, and the potential for phototoxicity. The only exception is Hyssop ct. pinocamphone which should be avoided using (all routes) due to methyleugenol content which is neurotoxic.
Avoid use on children under 5-6 years old
Oils to Avoid due to estrogenic content
Oils to Avoid due to Menthol content which can slow breathing and possible cause neurological issues in young children when applied on the face or nose.
Oils to Avoid due to 1,8 cineole content which can cause CNS and breathing problems in young childrenwhen applied on the face or nose.
Avoid Use on Children Under 10 Years Old
Avoid Use on Children under 14 years old
Diffusing in classrooms and shared childcare spaces
The topic of diffusing essential oils in classrooms, day cares, and other shared childcare spaces comes with a whole host of issues. It seems innocent enough to want to replace chemical air fresheners with a natural alternative, but it does pose a risk for children with medical issues and chronic illnesses.This poses the same concerns from parents and educators as it would for a child with a severe food allergy. You will see plenty of articles for and against this practice.
Diffusion should be done with care especially when you are around babies and children as essential oils that are mucuous membrane irritants like Clove, Lemongrass, and Ylang Ylang could potentially irritate the mucous membranes in the nose and mouth from prolonged exposure to diffusion. Now take into account anyone with chronic issues involving irritation and inflammation in these areas.You also have to take allergies into consideration as well. A parents consent should be taken into consideration. Would you want someone exposing your child to them without your consent?
Thieves - Is it safe to use on or around children?
I've received several private messages about the safety of Thieves and similar essential oils blends and product lines. Thieves is a blend of Lemon, Clove, Cinnamon Bark, Eucalyptus Radiata, and Rosemary essential oils. It is not clear which chemotype (camphor, cineole, or verbenone) of Rosemary is being used.
On Guard is a similar blend to Thieves and is a blend of Wild Orange Peel, Clove Bud, Cinnamon Leaf, Cinnamon Bark, Eucalyptus, and Rosemary. It would also pose the same risks as mentioned above.
I know many people who use Thieves and similar blends in the homes without having any issues. It is a trade off between using the standard chemical-laden cleaning products and room fresheners, but essential oils and essential oils products have their own safety precautions as well. They do not get a carte blanche 100% safe mark across the board.
Raindrop Therapy / Aromatouch Technique
Raindrop Therapy and Aromatouch Technique are widely regarded throughout the professional aromatherapy community as dangerous for not only children, but adults as well.
Raindrop Therapy utilizes the application of undiluted Oregano, Thyme, Basil, Cypress, Wintergreen, Marjoram, Peppermint, and two proprietary blends from Young Living: Valor and Aroma Siez. Valor is a blend of Black Spruce, Camphor, Blue Tansy, Frankincense, and Geranium. Aroma Siez is a blend of Basil, Marjoram, Lavender, Peppermint, and Cypress.
Aromatouch Technique utilizes a similar application of undiluted Lavender, Peppermint, Tea tree, Wild Orange, and proprietary blends by dōTERRA: AromaTouch, Deep Blue, Balance, and On Guard. Balance is a blend of Spruce, Ho Wood, Frankincense, Blue Tansy, Blue Chamomile, and Osmanthus. Aromatouch is a blend of Cypress, Peppermint, Marjoram, Basil, Grapefruit, and Lavender. Deep Blue is a blend of Wintergreen, Camphor, Peppermint, Ylang Ylang, Helichrysum, Blue Tansy, Blue Chamomile, and Osmanthus. On Guard is a blend of Wild Orange Peel, Clove Bud, Cinnamon Leaf, Cinnamon Bark, Eucalyptus, and Rosemary.
As discussed above, several of these oils should be avoided with children, especially wintergreen, but also including Eucalyptus, Rosemary, Camphor, Oregano and Peppermint. Even some of the other oils can be problematic as well, Cinnamon Bark and Thyme depending on the chemotype can be a mucuous membrane irritant and skin sensitizer as well.
Read more about the dangers of these popular methods of application:
Adverse Reaction Database
For more information on essential oils safety, the Tisserand Institute's Adverse Reaction Database is an excellent resource, but be warned some of the images shown in the database are graphic. Please note that these are reported issues, many people have reactions to essential oils and do not report them or do not recognize them as injuries due to improper use.
My intention is not to scare anyone aware from aromatherapy and using essential oils on your babies and children, but I urge you to do so safely. Do you research including pro's and con's and make your decisions based on this information, but be sure to discern the difference between marketing hype meant to sell products and actual research based on safety standards. The aromatherapy industry loves essential oils and we want you to use them safely for yourself, your families, and customers.
Regarding the "The results are in: I called 15 essential oil companies and asked if I could tour their farms to see how the essential oils are made" viral Facebook post has been floating around for the past week. I wrote a response to it late at night last week, but sadly, my phone ate it before I was able to post it -- that's what I get for Facebooking when I wake up between 1-3am at random intervals every night.
Preface: As a Certified Aromatherapist working on my Clinical Aromatherapy certification program, I had to study 60 different essential oils -- no one company sells them all, so I had to research numerous essential oil companies, most of which come highly recommended by my teachers and other industry professionals. I trust their opinions as they have been teaching aromatherapy or writing about it for decades.
This persons guise of investigative research is highly flawed for several reasons. Yes, most, if not all, essential oil companies, even the ones that own some of their own farms, source their oils from distributors, brokers, and independent distilleries. And yes, you can often go and tour those farms and distilleries. Customer service representatives may not have that information or may not be able to give it out. I've read numerous accounts from a host of aromatherapy educators that I have studied with about the farms and distilleries they have visited. In fact, the New York Institute of Aromatic Studies offers a retreat to Sedona, Arizona, where attendees visit the PhiBee Aromatics distillery and get to wild harvest and distill plant material during the workshop. A quick Google search for "tour Lavender farms" yielded numerous results including a Travel Channel feature of nine lavender farms that you can tour in the United States, some of which produce essential oils.
Different plants are native to numerous regions all over the globe and it can be problematic and costly to visit these farms. I love Frankincense, but I doubt that I am going to be travelling to Northern Africa or the Middle East anytime soon. This is also why most essential oils companies source their materials from different distilleries and farms because it is not cost effective to own and manage farms all over the world.
Young Living is often boasted as owning ALL their own farms, this is patently not true. Yes, they do own farms most of which are in North America and Europe with one to three farms each located in South America, Asia, Australia, and Africa. It clearly states on the Seed to Seal website that "We’ve invested unprecedented time and resources to ensure that these standards are prioritized at each of our corporate-owned farms, partner farms, and Seed to Seal-certified suppliers." This indicates that they do in fact source some of their essential oils from outside farms and suppliers.
Sourcing essential oils from farms and suppliers is not a bad thing, nor does it indicate a lack of quality or company transparency. Every essential oil company does this. They do not hide this fact either.
Regarding some companies advising not to take essential oils internally, this has nothing to do with quality, it has everything to do with liability issues and it is a highly controversial topic in the professional aromatherapy field - many advocate to never use essential oils internally. Also, FDA regulations require separate branding for anything consumable as opposed to topical or inhalation applications. Those oils still can be ingested, but there are many safety issues around doing so and quite frankly much of the information floating around the internet is highly inaccurate and downright dangerous. I have completed the coursework in French Aromatherapy and know the risks and proper methods of using essential oils internally. I have written extensively about it on this blog.
The person who wrote the post asked the following questions:
We all have our brand loyalties when it comes to where we buy our essential oils. As an aromatherapist and perfumer, I have to buy my supplies through a dozen different companies because no single company carriers every single essential oil -- and there are over 350 of them without taking variations like absolutes, C02 extracts, country of origin, and chemotypes into factor. I trust these companies and move beyond marketing hype and misinformation.
I am a certified aromatherapist and I rarely diffuse essential oils anymore. I think the last time I did so was for some ambiance during my housewarming party in December. I got away from passive diffusion last year, but never really thought about why I was no longer diffusing all the time. Occasionally, I will make wax melts because they wax absorbs the aroma and it lasts much longer than any standard water diffuser.
There are so many ways to reap the benefits of aromatherapy and we all have our preferences. Diffusion is a good starting point when you are first getting comfortable with essential oils and the benefits of aromatherapy. After studying aromatherapy, I found better ways to incorporate aromatherapy into my daily self-care practices.
In February 2018, I received my Level One Aromatherapy Certification from the New York Institute of Aromatic Studies. My passion for working primarily with essential oils began in 2011 when I started dabbling with using them for anxiety, stress, and depression. Admittedly, I had no idea what I was doing and that there were drastic differences in the quality of essential oils depending on the brand. I got away from them for a little while and my interest was renewed after taking an Aromatherapy and Yoga workshop at a local yoga studio. The instructor introduced the class to the Young Living brand and we made a few items to take home with us. Thus my journey began.
I started researching essential oils and learned how to make basic skin care products. At the time, I was having a hard time with my skin care regimen and my skin looked unhealthy. Much to my surprise, my skin issues resolved within a matter of months. I purchased a selection of essential oils from Young Living and became a member. I didn't really know much about MLM (Multi-Level Marketing) companies at the time. While I eventually got away from the Young Living experience for personal reasons, I learned so much that got my started on this journey.
Due to the lack of scientific information, misinformation, and proper aromatherapy practices, I decided to become a certified aromatherapist. The New York Institute came highly recommended and I enrolled in their dual program in the Foundations of Aromatherapy and French Aromatherapy certification programs. I'm still working on my final paper for the French Aromatherapy certification after changing my focus a couple of times. For both programs, I had to conduct several case studies with friends and clients, which really helped me to hone in on my practice and apply what I had learned through my studies.
I had been working with my business coach Carlee Myers of Work You Love Now and in April I decided to start my own aromatherapy business. We worked through all of the beginning stages of the process, setting up an LLC, getting business accounts, service and product development. We continue to work together to grow my business.
My thirst for knowledge was increasing exponentially and I took on several other programs, classes, and workshops. I completed programs in teacher training, natural skin care formulation, essential oils safety, incense crafting, soapmaking, and an introductory course in perfuming. I am also working on completing my Level Two Aromatherapy Certification program and an Herbalism Immersion Program.
I am a creative person by nature--I hold a BFA in Art History and Studio Arts from Moore College of Art & Design. My background in the arts has been invaluable as it has helped me to create my visual branding and product photography for my business.
I started expanding my product offerings beyond the store on my website to include Etsy and Amazon Handmade and my sales have been increasing exponentially. I have also embarked upon selling my products in person at local craft fairs in the Philadelphia area.
I am excited for what 2019 will mean for my business as it continues to grow. I have a few vending spots at upcoming craft fairs in February under my belt.
At the behest of one of my doula friends, I have embarked upon developing a product line to suit the needs that arise throughout the course of the pregnancy, labor & delivery, postpartum, and baby care. Earlier this year, I took a course through the New York Institute of Aromatic Studies on this very subject in addition to my aromatherapy and essential oil safety training. During my research phase, I was shocked to find that while there are hundreds of websites and blogs with information about essential oil use and pregnancy that there was no definitive resource. I found list after list about what oils are safe to use and which ones are to be avoided, but a lack of purpose and reasoning behind them.
In addition to the task of developing a new product line, I found myself consulting my books, course materials, and online resources to get the low down on all things related to pregnancy and aromatherapy in order to provide an accurate resource for professionals in the field and for informed mothers. I pulled together a comprehensive list of safe essential oils that can be used during pregnancy, noting their benefits, and any special precautions in addition to a list of what to avoid and why. I spent a lot of time cross referencing the list with Tisserand & Young's Essential Oil Safety as it is the go-to resource for safety data on essential oils.
Safe Essential Oils
There are many conflicting resources regarding essential oils that are safe to use during and after pregnancy. I have compiled a list of safe oils to use, but some are only used during particular times during and after the pregnancy depending on whether or not you are breastfeeding. There may be other essential oils that are safe to use during pregnancy, but these are the primary ones that can be used during pregnancy.
See the full list of Pregnancy Safe Essential Oils.
Oils to Avoid
Pregnancy by Trimester
All pregnancies are different for each person and issues may manifest in different ways. Since the sense of smell is heightened and can be triggering during pregnancy, it is important for any blend to have a pleasing aroma, but there will always be the chance that even if it smells good that it may trigger nausea or headaches.
First Trimester: Weeks 1 - 12You may not know that you are pregnant until after week 4, but can start focusing on the changes occurring in your body and what you need during the beginning months of your pregnancy. You might start experiencing morning sickness, moodiness, cravings, fatigue, and other symptoms associated with the early stages of pregnancy. Aromatherapy can help ease some of these symptoms and help you along the way through every stage of your pregnancy.
Second Trimester: Weeks 13 - 28Some of the early symptoms of pregnancy may reside a little, but new concerns may develop during the second trimester. It is common to feel anxiety as the pregnancy will seem a lot more real during the second trimester as you will become more noticeably pregnant over time. It is important to stay active and healthy throughout your pregnancy and you can continue to use or change your aromatherapy solutions to manage sensitivities to smell and any new issues that may arise. You may start experiencing back pain and as the baby grows you will start to gain weight and may be concerned about stretch marks.
Third Trimester: Weeks 29 - 40You might start feeling excited about the arrival of the baby not being so far away, but you will still need to support any new or recurring pregnancy symptoms that you may be having at this time in order to prepare for the process of giving birth.
Labor, Delivery, and PostpartumWhether you have a natural delivery or C- Section, be sure to take care of yourself during these delicate days from the first contraction to taking your infant home for the first time. Your body has undergone something major and you will need time to heal your body, mind, and spirit in addition to caring for your newborn child.
Read more about aromatherapy for each stage of your pregnancy.
A Sneak Peak Look at the Products
Restorative Aromatics is developing a wide array of aromatherapy products safe for use during the time of fertility and conception throughout the pregnancy, after birth, and for babies. As a certified aromatherapist, I have been trained in the safe and proper use of essential oils and aromatherapy products for use throughout every stage of pregnancy, labor and delivery, after birth, and for newborn babies.
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Intro to Perfuming is the first video in the Artisanal Aromatics Series of education videos and discussions on topics pertaining to aromatherapy, herbalism, soapmaking, incense creation, and perfumery. On December 2nd, we talked about types of perfumes, fragrance classifications and notes, supplies, and the differences between fragrance oils, aroma chemicals, and essential oils.
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Owner, Restorative Aromatics and NAHA Certified Aromatherapist Level One. This blog focuses on aromatherapy education and other essential oil related topics.